What else can we find on Scientific data and the Shroud:
Overview of Recent Shroud Findings...
Shroud of Turin Scientific Timeline - 1988 to Present...
1988 - C-14 dating by Oxford University, University of Arizona, and the
Swiss Fed'l Institute of Technology find the Shroud samples have a 95%
probability of dating between 1260-1390AD. Announcement of this date
causes a sharp decline in Shroud research since this dating indicates the
Shroud is not authentic.
1989 - Dr. T. Phillips proposes theory of neutron bombardment which
predicts isotopic conversion of C-13 into C-14. This process could easily
cause misdating of Shroud or any other object exposed to neutrons in this
1993 - Rebecca Jackson's historical research indicates Shroud may have
also been the tablecloth used at the Last Supper. She notes that Orthodox
Jews get a new tablecloth for Passover to insure the purity of the meal.
It is highly likely that Joseph of Arimathea was a member of the Chevrah
Kidusha, the official Jewish burial society. He was thus able to demand
Jesus' body from Pilate, but in all likelihood didn't have enough time to
secure a new, legal burial cloth before sundown - he would have chosen the
tablecloth for the Last Supper, used only once, to bury Jesus. The Shroud
cloth meets all the requirements for a Jewish burial garment (Tachrichim)and
is the right size to cover the table for a Passover supper for 13 people.
1994 - Dr Alan Whanger, professor emeritus at Duke University's Medical
Center, using very sensitive multi-frequency polarized optical analysis
techniques, claims evidence of objects which include a crucifixion nail, a
Roman spear, a sponge on a stick, a crown of thorns, a "titulus"
- a Roman title board, a Tiberian amulet, two scourges, a large hammer, a
pair of pliers, and two desecrated Jewish phylacteries or prayer boxes.
All are consistent with 1st Century objects and with Roman crucifixions of
1994 - Drs. D.Kouznetsov & A. Ivanov of the Sedov Biopolymer
Research Lab in Moscow state that carbon exchange between carbon in the
combustion products from a fire and Shroud linen carbon during the fire of
1532, aided by the catalytic action of molten silver and steam, shifted
the mix of surface carbon atoms by 20% to 40% thus yielding errors in C-14
measurement. Their experiments yielded a Shroud date "not less than
1,800 years old". Biofractionalization in flax also contributes to
faulty C-14 results since flax plants absorb carbon isotopes at differing
rates depending on the chemical constituent of the flax involved.
1995 - Drs. S. Mattingly and L.Garza-Valdes subject small residual
Shroud samples to infrared and mass spectroscopic analysis. They find
samples coated with biogenic varnishes which would materially alter
results in C-14 testing making Shroud appear much younger that it really
is. This would occur if the biogenic varnishes were not removed prior to
carbon dating procedures.
1995 - Dr. Victor Tryon, assistant professor of microbiology and
Director of the University of Texas Center for Advanced DNA Technologies,
isolated signals from three different human male genes using polymerase
chain reaction techniques. The samples were take from "blood
globs" found on the Shroud.
1995 - Dr. Allan Mills proposed "single oxygen theory" to
account for the Shroud Image mechanism. In his research paper, published
in Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol 20, no.4, Dec.1995, he states
that some mechanism must be at work that can take into account all of the
following facts which have been developed from analyzing the Shroud:
* absence of any distortions in the Shroud image.
* absence of any apparent paint medium of any kind.
* absence of any significant detectable silver or chromium which
would have resulted from any experimentation with photographic
* Image's imprinting on only one side of the cloth.
* Image's density as inversely proportional to the cloth's
distance from the body.
* Images apparent sensitivity to cuts of thread used to make up
linen in the Shroud.
Dr. Mills proposed two possible mechanisms that may be involved in the
Shroud image: the Volckringer effect - which creates images similar to
plant images left on pages of a book in which a plant leaf has been
pressed; or, the Russell effect - involving materials that leave their
images on photographic plates held in total darkness by a mechanism
thought to involve singlet-oxygen reactions. Dr. Mills states that it's
singlet oxygen released from traumatized cells that could account for the
creation of the Image on the Shroud.
1996 - Drs. Mattingly and Garza-Valdes lead team at the University of
Texas Health Sciences Center which concluded that the carbon dating of
Shroud done in 1988 may be erroneous since the Shroud samples do not
appear to have been appropriately treated to remove biogenic varnishes.
The varnish effect they describe is valid for all carbon-dating on
textiles of ancient origin.
The final scientific dating of the Shroud has yet to be conducted since
the Vatican must approve the extraction of further samples to be used in
carbon dating. However, the Shroud can definitively be said to contain the
image of a man crucified in exactly the same manner as Jesus of Nazareth;
it is encrusted with human blood - type AB - and blood fractions including
bile pigments and albumin; it carries visible and invisible indications of
scourging; and somehow was created with a three-dimensional imaging
process that is still unknown in 1996. The Shroud is not a painting of any
kind, it's not a primitive form of photography and does not bear any
evidence of being made by human hands.
It is an enigma primarily because of the controversy surrounding the
carbon-dating of the Shroud and the unknown manner in which the image was
imprinted on the fabric...if the fabric should subsequently be found to
date from the first century then it will have been shown to be the burial
cloth of a severly beaten and crucified man from the near-East - almost
certainly a Jew, who was wrapped in a linen cloth unwashed according to
the Halachah and handled in strict accordance with Jewish Law; who wore a
pony tail, a symbol of resistance against Roman occupation in first
century Palestine; who had deep wounds in his wrists and feet; puncture
wounds surrounding his upper forehead; a deep wound in his left side just
below the rib cage which left evidence of blood and fluid; and a man whose
image was imprinted on the Shroud in a manner that still defies modern
Could it be that modern scientific technology, the end-result of
rational materialism, is about to make known to the world at the end of
the twentieth century the fact that the crucifixion and Resurrection of
Jesus Christ is not some ancient myth??...that the Resurrection of Jesus
Christ is a physical reality!
Isn't it interesting that only now in the late-twentieth century can
human technology uncover the fact that the Shroud image has
three-dimensional characteristics, that the Shroud contains type AB male
human blood, that the person scourged was hit 120 times by two Roman
flagelli and that the image appears as if it was imprinted on the fabric
by an energy or chemical burst from the body it once contained - in a
process that is still unknown! Perhaps the Shroud was destined for this
The Byzantine Coins predates the carbon dating on the Shroud by over
600 years Dr. Alan Whanger, retired from Duke University, has demonstrated
that the Shroud man's face also bears strong likeness, with 145 points of
congruence, to a Byzantine coin that has the distinction of being the
first coin in history to present a portrait bust of Jesus, dated 685-695. 3,4
The scientific concensus is that the image was produced by something
which resulted in oxidation, dehydration and conjugation of the
polysaccharide structure of the microfibrils of the linen itself. Such
changes can be duplicated in the laboratory by certain chemical and
physical processes. A similar type of change in linen can be obtained by
sulphuric acid or heat. However, there are no chemical or physical methods
known which can account for the totality of the image, nor can any
combination of physical, chemical, biological or medical circumstances
explain the image adequately."5
Ionization and the Shroud
By Guy Cramer
These above scientific findings makes one wonder why the carbon dating
and the data do not match up. I do believe that carbon dating is accurate
and that the tests were done truthfully. I also believe we have run into
one of the only problems that can throw off carbon dating, ionization.
The findings below to some scientists may look very biased for
Christianity. To openly look at the ionization theory one must be open to
the possibility of the resurrection. It matters little to me and I hope I
can speak for most Christians, when I say, It doesn't matter whether the
shroud is genuine or not. This theory does not state that the shroud is
genuine but it offers possible answers to the many questions that still
Before we get into the effects on the Shroud lets look at some little
known data about death:
Physicist Janusz Slawinki, writing in the "Journal of Near Death
Studies", found that a dying organism emits a "light shout"
more then a thousand times greater than their usual resting state. As
cells die and genetic material begins to unfold as it does at death, a
powerful charge of electromagnetic energy is given off. 6
This powerful charge is released as ionization, which can be measured
With this ionization necessary to burn the image in to the linen, being
far greater then any organism is capable of, then we must assume the
Shroud was produced with modern day technology or is the actual burial
linen of Jesus, and that his claims about being the Son of God are true.
Above average ionization of the shroud provides us with a medical and
biological answer to what could have caused the image of the shroud.
Ionization will also result in oxidation, dehydration and conjugation of
the polysaccharide structure of the microfibrils in the linen itself. So
we have a physical and chemical answer.
Ionization could also burn the image on the Turin Shroud only on the
peaks of the fibers as seen on the linen.
It could also create an effect with the linen which we would see a
photo negative image when photographed
If Jesus died on the cross, why would the image show up on the burial
linen which was placed over him after he died? Simple; he was resurrected
as the New Testament says and The Old Testament prophesied. Jesus provided
Thomas with proof.
Now Thomas (called Didymus), one of the Twelve, was not with the
disciples when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, "We have
seen the Lord!"
But he said to them, "unless I see the nail marks in his hands and
put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will
not believe it."
A week later his disciples were in the house again, and Thomas was with
them. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and said, "Peace be
with you!" Then he said to Thomas , "Put your finger here; see
my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and
Thomas said to him, "My Lord and my God!"
Then Jesus told him, Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed
are those who have not seen and yet have believed."(John
The shroud may provide us with proof. If the body gives off ionization
when it dies what happens when life comes back into the body? There must
also be ionization involved.
The image produced on the shroud needed to be much more powerful then
the "light shout" emitted by a normal dying organism. But
remember we are dealing with the Son of God. He declares "While
I am in the world, I am the light of the world"(John 9:5)
We also see the following example in Jesus of the usual resting state
of normal electromagnetic energy that we all emit, was not the same in
Jesus as others:
A large crowd followed and pressed around him. And a woman who
was there who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years. She had
suffered a great deal under the care of many doctors and had spent all she
had, yet instead of getting better she grew worse. When she heard about
Jesus, she came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak, because
she thought, "If I just touch his cloth, I will be healed."
Immediately her bleeding stopped and she felt in her body that she was
freed from her suffering.
At once Jesus realized that power had gone out from him. He turned around
in the crowd and asked, "Who touched my cloth?"
"You see the people crowding against you," his disciples
answered, "and yet you can ask, 'Who touch me?'"
But Jesus kept looking around to see who had done it. Then the woman,
knowing what had happened to her, came and fell at his feet and, trembling
with fear, told him the whole truth. He said to her, "Daughter, your
faith has healed you. Go in peace and be freed from your suffering.(Mark
What caused the demon possessed to recognize Jesus as the Son of God
when others couldn't? They could see the light which he could not hide
Just then a man in their synagogue who was possessed by an evil
spirit cried out, "What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have
you come to destroy us? I know who you are-the Holy One of God!"
"Be quiet!" said Jesus sternly. "Come out of him" The
evil spirit shook the man violently and came out of him with a shriek.(Mark
That evening after sunset the people brought to Jesus all the
sick and demon-possessed. The whole town gathered at the door, and Jesus
healed many who had various diseases. He also drove out many demons, but
he would not let the demons speak because they knew who he was.(Mark
There are many examples of the possessed recognizing Jesus in the New
Why would ionization of the shroud throw out the carbon dating?
First lets look at the carbon dating procedure.
-The material to be tested is cleaned and put in a tube with granules
of copper oxide and vacuum sealed.
-The tube is then placed in an oven for two hours at 950 degrees. This
turns the carbon into carbon dioxide gas.
-The tube is then placed into pressure tubing and broken.
-The gas is then frozen into pure white solid carbon dioxide.
-Heating this with a catalyst produces pure carbon powder.
-The pure carbon is placed on a copper disk and pressed onto the disk to
give it a flat surface.
-The disk is then bombarded by Cesium atoms to give off negative carbon
-These ions are then drawn into the 4.5 million volt tandem accelerator.
-The ions come out the other end of the accelerator as positive ions.
-The positive carbon 14 ions are then deflected into an ion counter.
-The voltage on the tandem accelerator is switched to get carbon 13 and
carbon 12 ions from the same carbon powder to also be counted.
-It is the ratio of these 3 ions in separate counters that will give the
computer an accurate time measurement +/- 50 years.
In the case of the shroud linen the results at three different labs
produced similar results. A 95% probability of 1260-1390AD.
Assuming the material has already been ionized (which is the main
principle for carbon dating),then the method of carbon dating will give an
incorrect answer to the actual date of origin for the shroud.
We may be able to extract out of the data how much ionization took
place to burn the image on the shroud. What would this tell us? That the
mans image in the Shroud is in fact the Son of God. The voltage to produce
this image may be far greater then any organism is capable of. Since we
see no entrance areas in the linen for lightning to have struck the body,
having produced the image, we must conclude that the image was created
through the process of resurrection.
1. Sunfellow, David "The Shroud of Turin" (New Heaven, New
Earth) http://nen.sedona.net/nhne/shroud.html The information in this
summary was gathered from the following sources: An article called,
"The Shroud of Turin" by Richard Walters, a recent interview
with Paul Maloney, General Projects Director of ASSIST (The Association of
Scientists and Scholars International for the Shroud of Turin), ASSIST
NEWSLETTERS, an in depth story NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ran in 1980, and
various news clippings. Although it seems unlikely that the Catholic
Church will allow new testing to be done on the Shroud anytime soon,
scientists from around the world, continue to study, test, debate and
ponder the Shroud's mysteries. For more information on the Shroud of
Turin, visit Barrie M. Schwortz's SHROUD OF TURIN WEB SITE (http://www.shroud.com/).
Barrie's site contains full-color pictures of the Shroud, links to other
Shroud related sites and current Shroud research and news. Barrie was the
Official Documenting Photographer for THE SHROUD OF TURIN RESEARCH
PROJECT, INC., (STURP), the team that completed the first extensive
scientific examination of the Shroud of Turin in 1978.
Copyright © 1995 By David Sunfellow,
Published By NewHeavenNewEarth / firstname.lastname@example.org
Please feel free to pass this special NHNE article on to as many people
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2. Walsh,Bryan "The Shroud of Turin" http://members.aol.com/bjw1106/shr-tur.htm
3.The Shroud Of Turin (History's Mysteries), CTC 1994 for The Learning
4. the Byzantine Coin Page (Collectors' Coin Universe)
by Chris Connell
5. Walsh,Bryan "The Shroud of Turin" http://members.aol.com/bjw1106/shr-tur.htm
6. Morse, Melvin, M.D. "Tranformed by the Light", Ballantine
Books 1992, p.155-156